Alexander, Donna.  Interview with authors, 18 October 2009,  Manhattan, Kansas.

    Mrs. Alexander contracted polio as a young adult. In our interview with her, she told us about what happened when she had polio, where she received treatment, and difficulties with post polio syndrome. She shared a book with us. We quoted her on our webpage.

Allman, David B., Basil O’Connor, and Leroy E. Burney.  Report to the President on Polio Vaccination 30 March 1957.  DDE's Papers as
       President, Cabinet Series, Box 5, Cabinet Meeting of 30 March 1957, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library.

    We put this document on our website to show the success of the polio vaccine program.  It showed that 64.5 million people had received the Salk vaccine within the first two years. 

Hobby, Oveta Culp.  “Charts and Graphs With Figures On Polio Cases in the United States.”  Oveta Culp Hobby Papers, Box 23,    Salk
           Vaccine.  April and May 1955.  Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library.

    We used a map and a chart from this set of papers on our website to show how widespread polio was in 1952 and the mortality rate of polio during the twentieth century.  This helped illustrate the need for a vaccine.

Eisenhower, Dwight D. "Presidential Sunday Night Broadcast." White House, Washington, Box 16 May 1955. Speech. DDE’s Papers As
       President.  Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library.

     This was the transcript of President Eisenhower's speech celebrating the success of the polio vaccine. It gave us background on the Salk vaccine and helped us understand the depth of fear people had about polio.

Fischer, Rex, M.D.  Letter to authors, 19 November 2009.  Manhattan, Kansas

    Dr. Fisher told us that he treated about twelve children with polio when he was a medical student prior to the Salk vaccine.  He told us that the Salk vaccine ‘salvaged many children from  life-long disabilities.’ 

Friesen, Lauren.  Email to authors, 7 December 2009. Manhattan, Kansas.

    Mr. Friesen contracted polio when he was seven.  He told about his experiences in the hospital and later treatment.  We got a better understanding of the impact polio had on the lives of those children who contracted it.  We used a quote from Mr. Friesen about when he received the Sister Kenny treatment.

Harada, Yosaku. Letter to President Dwight D. Eisenhower. 30 Aug. 1960, DDE's Papers as President, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library.

     In this letter, the mayor of Sapporo, Japan thanked President Eisenhower for the iron lungs that would help save people's lives. He also explained that there was a polio epidemic going on in Japan in 1960. It helped us understand that polio impacted people all across the world.

Jorge, Mario. Letter to President Dwight D. Eisenhower. 30 Mar. 1956.  DDE's Records as President, Official File, Box 601, 117-I-1 Salk Polio Vaccine (1),
       Dwight D.Eisenhower Presidential Library.

     This was a telegram from the leader of Mozambique Island asking President Eisenhower to share the Salk vaccine with his country. He pleads with the President to send the vaccine because children in his country were getting sick. The letter helped us understand how desperate people were to stop polio.

Kehret, Peg.  Small Steps:  The Year I Got Polio.  Morton Grove, Illinois:  Albert Whitman & Company.  1996.

    We read this first person account of a teenage girl who contracted polio.  It helped us understand what it was like for the person getting polio and having to leave their home and families.  We used a long quote from this book to tell a personal experience someone had when they contracted polio.  This was used on a page linked to ‘Background’ and ‘Polio.’

Klinger, Gene, M.D.  Letter to authors, 30 December 2009. Manhattan, Kansas.

    Dr. Klinger shared his experiences growing up in the 1950’s with the fear of polio, his experiences treating polio patients, and how the vaccine changed medicine.  He really helped us understand polio from the perspective of a doctor.

Leyerzapf, James W.  "Interview.” 3 Mar. 2009. Abilene, Kansas:Eisenhower Presidential Library.

          James Leyerzapf gave an interview which was recorded and kept at the Eisenhower Library. Mr. Leyerzapf was a 'polio pioneer' or one of the first children to receive the Salk vaccine. His interview helped us understand what happened with the nationwide inoculation program.

Leyerzapf, Nancy.  Email to authors,  1 December 2009.  Manhattan, Kansas.

     Mrs. Leyerzapf was a child in Pennsylvania when she was a polio pioneer and part of the national trials of the Salk vaccine. She gave us her perspective on the trials and helped us understand the fear that was felt by parents about polio.  We quoted Mrs. Leyerzapf on our website.

Lichtenstein, Richard.   Phone Interview with authors,  16 December 2009. Manhattan, Kansas.

     We interviewed Mr. Lichtenstein who was polio pioneer.  He was one of the first children to receive a vaccine but it turned out to be a placebo.  We learned about how the trials were carried out.  When it came to Mr. Lichtenstein’s turn as an eight year, the syringe broke.  The people  giving the vaccine had to call the doctors running the trials to find out what to do, what type of shot to give Mr. Lichtenstein, and how to record.  Unfortunately, he received the placebo
and so a few months later had to get three more shots.  We enjoyed the interview and learned about the Salk trials from a child’s perspective.

Mayer, Betty Jane W. Letter to the authors, 11 Dec. 2009.  Manhattan, Kansas.

   Dr. Betty Jane Mayer was a 'Polio Pioneer.' She told us how she was selected to receive the vaccine when she was 7 years old. She shared her memory of people that she had seen in 'iron lungs.'

“N.C. Polio Toll Nation’s Worst.”  Stars and Stripes, 28 July 1948 p. 6
     This article told us about the number of cases of polio in North Carolina in 1948.  The rate of nineteen persons for every 100,000 showed us that there were earlier epidemics than those in the 1950’s.

“Nurse is with young polio patients at the University Hospital in Edmonton, Abt. 1947”  National Film Board of Canada. Still Photography Division graphic
     material] (R1196-14-7-E Library and Archives Of  Canada.   Available from  Internet:  accessed 21 October 2009.

    We used a picture from this website of a young polio victim and his nurse to illustrate one of our web pages.

Persons, Wilton.  Letter to Honorable Ben F. Jensen.  20 October 1955.  DDE's Records as President, Official File, Box 23,Infantile Paralysis,
      Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library.

    This was a letter written by Wilton Persons, the Deputy Assistant to President Eisenhower.  It explained how the Salk vaccine would be distributed, how anyone who needed the vaccine would have access to it, and specifically how the Congressman’s home state of Iowa would be assured of getting the vaccine it needed.  This helped us understand how the vaccine was distributed. We saw a lot of similarities between the vaccine program for the Salk vaccine and the one in place for the H1N1.

“Photographs of Jonas Salk.”  Life Magazine.  ca 1955-1958.  Available from:  Internet:  accessed 10 October 2009.

    We used two or three photographs of Jonas Salk from Life Magazine to illustrate our web page.

“Polio Vaccine for 500,000 Is Expected.”  Greeley Tribune (Greeley, Colorado) 18 January 1954 .  6.

    We used this actual newspaper article to illustrate the number of children who were going to be in the initial vaccine as well as the hope but cautious tone of the trials.

“Polio Vaccine A Success.”  Greeley Tribune  (Greeley, Colorado)  12 April 1955. 1

    This was a newspaper article showing the headlines that Jonas Salk’s vaccine was a success.  It helped us illustrate how important the vaccine was and its success.

Presley, Gary.  Email to authors, 25 December 2009.  Manhattan, Kansas

    Mr. Presley contracted polio just days before his final vaccination with the Salk vaccine. He helped us how understand polio had impacted his life.  He refused to let it limit him  even though he never walked. 

Rose, Graham. M.D.  Letter to authors, 15 November 2009.  Manhattan, Kansas.

    Dr. Rose wrote about polio, his work with some polio patients as a medical student, and the impact of Salk’s vaccine.  He helped us understand the vaccine and its impact from the medical point of view.

Salk, Jonas.  “Interview May 16, 1991  San Diego, California”  Academy of Achievement.  Available from  Internet:
    accessed 10 October 2009.

    This was an interview with Jonas Salk that included a typed transcript of the interview as well as video clips. We used the video clips on our website as well as several quotes.  The interview helped us understand how Jonas Salk pioneered a viable vaccine. We used part of this transcript on our web page.

Salk, Peter L. Letter to the authors, 18 Dec. 2009. San Diego, California.

    This was a letter written by Peter L. Salk to us. Dr. Salk was the son of Jonas Salk. He told us what impact his father had. It helped us understand a little bit more about Jonas Salk.
Steinkrueger, Verilyn, M.D.  Letter to authors,  12 January 2010.  Manhattan, Kansas.

    Dr. Steinkrueger began practicing as a doctor before the Salk vaccine and after.  He told us about treating patients with polio when he was a medical student.  He helped us understand that polio caused so severe paralysis that patients were kept in iron lungs.

Suderman, Eva.  Letter to authors, 8 October 2009.  Manhattan, Kansas.

    Mrs. Suderman had polio. She shared her experiences about contracting polio and treatment.  We included a quote from her letter on our web page.

Tumulty, Thomas J. Letter to Oveta Culp Hobby. 21 Apr. 1955. Oveta Culp Hobby Papers, Box 23, Salk Vaccine-April and May 1955, Dwight D.  Eisenhower
      Presidential Library.

     In this letter to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare Hobby, United States Representative Thomas J. Tumulty wanted to make sure that the Salk vaccine was shared equally with all states and kept off of the black market. This helped us understand how important the vaccine was that it be available to all children.

U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Public Health Service. Press Release. By Leonard A. Scheele. DDE's Records as President, Official File,
       Box 601, Infantile Paralysis. Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library. 1955.

      In this press release, the Surgeon General of the United States, Leonard Scheele, tried to calm the public after several children and others got polio
from the Salk vaccine produced by Cutter Manufacturing. We used this information about the 'Cutter Tragedy' in our website.

White House. Press Secretary. Statement By the President. DDE's Records as President, Official File, Box 601, 117-I-1 Salk Polio Vaccine (3)], Dwight D.
    Eisenhower Presidential Library.

     This was the Press Release given by James Hagerty concerning the polio vaccine nationwide trials. It followed the announcement that the Salk vaccine was safe and children across the United States would receive the vaccination. We used this news release for different facts about the vaccine, polio, and vaccination program.

Bernardon, Shelly.  Photo of Poliovirus.  4 January 2001.  Purdue University.  Available from  Internet:  accessed 11
     October 2009.

    We used the photograph of a polio virus on our web page on the background page.

Britton, Karen. "Summertime Hero: Dr. Jonas Salk Saved Thousands of Kids' Lives With Polio Vaccine." Boys' Life May 2000: 21.

     The article told us about how many people had been crippled by polio. It also gave us information about what Salk did after he finished with his vaccine and established the Salk Institute. We used this information on the 'Salk' page.

“Dr. Jonas Salk giving a young girl a polio vaccine, Pittsburgh, PA, 1955. “ Explore Pennsylvania History.  Available at:
     Displayingimage  Internet:  accessed 21 October 2009.

    We used a picture from this website on our web page.  It was a photograph of Salk giving one of the polio pioneers a dose of his vaccine.

Dr. Salk: Leading the Quest for an Effective Polio Vaccine. Discovery Education. 2005.  Available from:  Internet:
    accessed 18 November 2009 

    We used a clip of this movie on our web page.  It showed the initial vaccine trials.

Fabregas, Louis and Jennifer Bails.  “A Drive To Impact Humanity’s Future.”  Pittsburgh Tribune-Review  3 April 2005.

    This article helped us understand how the ‘killed virus’ vaccine was different than any other previous vaccines for crippling disease.  We also read about Salk’s first work with the flu vaccine that led to his work on polio.

“Fashion on Parade for Polio Tots.”  Video Yearbook 1954 Lou Reda Productions.  Discovery Education. Available from:
     Internet: Accessed 18 December 2009.

    We used a video clip from this film about the March of Dimes from 1954.

Fischman, Josh.  “Pushing Back Polio.”  U.S. News and World Report, 18 April 2005.  138: 44-45.
     We got several statistics about the number of polio cases, number of deaths, and paralysis in the 1950’s.  We used this information on our website.

“Jonas Salk: Physician and Research Scientist.” Discovery Education. 2005. Available from: Internet:  accessed 18
    December 2009.

    We used parts of this video on our web page.  We used the clips to tell about the number of polio victims in the United States, the vaccine trials, and Jonas Salk’s achievements.
“Jonas Salk.”  Jonas Salk Institute.  2009.  Available from: Internet: accessed 18 October 2009.
    We got two pictures from this website and information about Jonas Salk and his accomplishments.  We used these on our web page.  We also found Peter Salk’s address on this website and wrote to him.

"Jonas Salk, 1914-1995." A Scientific Odyssey: People and Discoveries. WGBH PBS, 1998. Available from:
      /bmsalk.html.  Internet: accessed 19 September 2009.
    This article gave us great secondary facts. It confirmed facts that we found in other Internet sites and periodicals.

"Jonas Salk Biography." Salk Biography. Academy of Achievement, 2009. Available from: Internet: 
     accessed 18 September 2009.

   This website contained Jonas Salk's biography, interviews with Dr. Salk, and videos. We used a video from this website, quotes, and general background information. It gave us primary and secondary sources.

Kluger, Jeffrey. “Conquering Polio.”  Smithsonian.  April 2005.  36, 82-89.

    We found out how the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis provided funding for Salk’s vaccine and later ran the nationwide inoculation trials. We used these facts on our web page.

Krull, Kathleen.  Wilma Unlimited.  New York:  Harcourt Brace & Company.  1996.

    We read this book about Wilma Rudolph who had polio as a child.  Later she became an Olympic champion.  It helped us understand how people overcame the effects of polio even though there wasn’t a successful treatment for it.

McCreedy, Lauren.  The Polio Vaccine:  Freedom From Fear:  The Impact of Salk’s Polio Vaccine on American Society.  12 April 2005.   Available from  Internet:  accessed
      25 October 2009.

    We got several pictures from this website as well as addresses for several polio pioneers. We used these to contact three people who wrote back to us about their experiences as the first children to receive the vaccine.

Palca, Joe.  “Salk Polio Vaccine Conquered Terrifying Disease.”  NPR.  Available from
       12 April 2005.Internet:  accessed 15 November 2009.

    We used a timeline from this website to show the background and general facts about polio and the Salk vaccine.

“Polio and Disability:  Franklin Roosevelt.”  Men of Our Time.  Polio and Disability. Brite Productions. 1989.Discovery Education. Available from:   Internet:  accessed 16 November 2009.

    We used a video clip about President Franklin Roosevelt, his contracting polio, and its impact on his life on our website.

“Polio Vaccine Invented.”  History Central.  Available from 2009.  Internet: 
    accessed 11October 2009.

    We used a photograph of President Roosevelt in a wheel chair on our website. 

Salk, Darrell. “The Legacy of Jonas Salk.”  Milestones of the 20th Century.  Danbury, Ct.:  Grolier.  1999.

    This two-page essay told us about the legacy that Jonas Salk left, including his work on the polio vaccine and later AIDS research.  We used this information on our ‘impact’ segment of the webpage.

Smith, Jane S.  Patenting The Sun:  Polio and the Salk Vaccine.  New York: William Morrow & Co. 1990

    Mrs. Alexander when we interviewed her, brought a copy of this book to share with us. It was one best books on the Salk vaccine and gave very detailed information about Salk and the vaccine trials.

“Whatever Happened to Polio?”  National Museum of American History Smithsonian Institute.  Available from:  2006
    Internet:  accessed 15 October 2009.

    This website talked about the poliovirus, the vaccine, and gave a timeline. We used  these on our website.  We also got quotes from Franklin Roosevelt that we used on our website.